90°/45° QDM interception

Key points:

Push the head for inbound interceptions, pull the tail for outbound interceptions.

For radial inbound interceptions, don’t forget to add/subtract 180 to the given radial (which is always outbound).

Don’t get stressed too much by the calculations, but make use of the 45° marks on the instrument.


Practicing holding patterns

This video demonstrates how a particular holding pattern is set up and the wind is adjusted. Start flying and use the reposition button to start over and over again from new, randomly created starting positions!


180°/90°/45° radial inbound interception using the EHSI

Key points:

For inbound radial interceptions, do not forget to set the RECIPROCAL course!

What type of interception method?

Up to 20° difference: 45°
More than 20°, less than 70° difference: 90° (followed by 45°)
More than 70° for inbound interceptions: 180° for at least 2 min (followed by 90°/45°)

Standard rate turn: Bank angle = Airspeed/10+7 (°)

Roll out at bank angle/2 (°) before the desired heading

Think ahead, where to turn next?

Keep cool! 🙂

Special direct holding pattern entry

Key points:

For entries when approaching from 90° +/-20° of the inbound track from the non-holding side

After overflying the station, maintain the heading for 20 seconds

Outbound leg 40 seconds, corrected for wind

1 x WCA on the outbound leg

Maximum dip error with maximum bank headed towards the NDB


IFR procedure trainer